century later the electric power plant is no longer a novel piece of machinery that Three kinds of power plants are scattered around the American landscape. Thermal Power: Overall plant components in Block diagrams indicating the air circuit, coal and ash sodium graphite, breeder) layout of nuclear power plant. PDF | On Jul 11, , Zheng-Fei Hu and others published Thermal Power Plants.
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Application of System Analysis for Thermal Power Plant Heat Thermal power plants are one of the most important process industries for engineering profes‐. Trends and Future Outlook for Thermal Power Plants. Fuji Electric's Medium- capacity Steam Turbines “FET Series”. Present Developmental Status of Fuji . Page |1 INTRODUCTION: A thermal power plant converts heat energy of coal into electrical energy. coal is burnt in a boiler which converts water into steam.
Thermal Power Station A thermal power station or a coal fired thermal power plant is by far, the most conventional method of generating electric power with reasonably high efficiency. It uses coal as the primary fuel to boil the water available to superheated steam for driving the steam turbine. The steam turbine is then mechanically coupled to an alternator rotor, the rotation of which results in the generation of electric power.
To enhance the thermal efficiency of the plant, the coal is used in the boiler in its pulverized form.
In coal fired thermal power plant, steam is obtained in very high pressure inside the steam boiler by burning the pulverized coal. This steam is then super heated in the super heater to extreme high temperature.
This super heated steam is then allowed to enter into the turbine, as the turbine blades are rotated by the pressure of the steam. The turbine is mechanically coupled with alternator in a way that its rotor will rotate with the rotation of turbine blades.
After entering into the turbine, the steam pressure suddenly falls leading to corresponding increase in the steam volume. After having imparted energy into the turbine rotors, the steam is made to pass out of the turbine blades into the steam condenser of turbine. In the condenser, cold water at ambient temperature is circulated with the help of pump which leads to the condensation of the low pressure wet steam.
Then this condensed water is further supplied to low pressure water heater where the low pressure steam increases the temperature of this feed water, it is again heated in high pressure.
This outlines the basic working methodology of a thermal power plant. Advantages of Thermal Power Plants Fuel used i. Initial cost is less as compared to other generating stations. After having imparted energy into the turbine rotors, the steam is made to pass out of the turbine blades into the steam condenser of turbine. In the condenser, cold water at ambient temperature is circulated with the help of pump which leads to the condensation of the low pressure wet steam.
Then this condensed water is further supplied to low pressure water heater where the low pressure steam increases the temperature of this feed water, it is again heated in high pressure. This outlines the basic working methodology of a thermal power plant.
Advantages of Thermal Power Plants Fuel used i. Initial cost is less as compared to other generating stations. It requires less space as compared to hydro-electric power stations.
Disadvantages of Thermal Power Plants It pollutes atmosphere due to production of smoke and fumes. Running cost of the power plant is more than hydro electric plant. Nuclear Power Station The nuclear power generating stations are similar to the thermal stations in more ways than one. However, the exception here is that, radioactive elements like uranium and thorium are used as the primary fuel in place of coal.
Also in a Nuclear station the furnace and the boiler are replaced by the nuclear reactor and the heat exchanger tubes. For the process of nuclear power generation, the radioactive fuels are made to undergo fission reaction within the nuclear reactors. The fission reaction, propagates like a controlled chain reaction and is accompanied by unprecedented amount of energy produced, which is manifested in the form of heat. This heat is then transferred to the water present in the heat exchanger tubes.
Bruce Nuclear Generating Station , the largest nuclear power facility  The economics of nuclear power plants is a controversial subject, and multibillion-dollar investments ride on the choice of an energy source. Nuclear power stations typically have high capital costs, but low direct fuel costs, with the costs of fuel extraction, processing, use and spent fuel storage internalized costs. Therefore, comparison with other power generation methods is strongly dependent on assumptions about construction timescales and capital financing for nuclear stations.
Cost estimates take into account station decommissioning and nuclear waste storage or recycling costs in the United States due to the Price Anderson Act.
With the prospect that all spent nuclear fuel could potentially be recycled by using future reactors, generation IV reactors are being designed to completely close the nuclear fuel cycle. However, up to now, there has not been any actual bulk recycling of waste from a NPP, and on-site temporary storage is still being used at almost all plant sites due to construction problems for deep geological repositories. Only Finland has stable repository plans, therefore from a worldwide perspective, long-term waste storage costs are uncertain.
Construction, or capital cost aside, measures to mitigate global warming such as a carbon tax or carbon emissions trading , increasingly favor the economics of nuclear power.
Some operational nuclear reactors release non-radioactive water vapor In Eastern Europe, a number of long-established projects are struggling to find finance, notably Belene in Bulgaria and the additional reactors at Cernavoda in Romania, and some potential backers have pulled out. To date all operating nuclear power stations were developed by state-owned or regulated utilities where many of the risks associated with construction costs, operating performance, fuel price, and other factors were borne by consumers rather than suppliers.
Safety and accidents[ edit ] Professor of sociology Charles Perrow states that multiple and unexpected failures are built into society's complex and tightly-coupled nuclear reactor systems. Such accidents are unavoidable and cannot be designed around. This leads to on average one serious accident happening every eight years worldwide. A nuclear power plant cannot explode like a nuclear weapon because the fuel for uranium reactors is not enriched enough, and nuclear weapons require precision explosives to force fuel into a small enough volume to go supercritical.
Most reactors require continuous temperature control to prevent a core meltdown , which has occurred on a few occasions through accident or natural disaster, releasing radiation and making the surrounding area uninhabitable. Plants must be defended against theft of nuclear material and attack by enemy military planes or missiles, or planes hijacked by terrorists.
Proponents also believe that nuclear power is the only viable course to achieve energy independence for most Western countries. They emphasize that the risks of storing waste are small and can be further reduced by using the latest technology in newer reactors, and the operational safety record in the Western world is excellent when compared to the other major kinds of power plants.
Threats include health risks and environmental damage from uranium mining , processing and transport, the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation or sabotage, and the unsolved problem of radioactive nuclear waste. The hot water modifies the environmental conditions for marine flora and fauna. They also contend that reactors themselves are enormously complex machines where many things can and do go wrong, and there have been many serious nuclear accidents. Actual construction costs often exceed estimates, and spent fuel management costs do not have a clear time limit.
Originally reprocessing was used solely to extract plutonium for producing nuclear weapons. With the commercialization of nuclear power , the reprocessed plutonium was recycled back into MOX nuclear fuel for thermal reactors. Finally, the breeder reactor can employ not only the recycled plutonium and uranium in spent fuel, but all the actinides , closing the nuclear fuel cycle and potentially multiplying the energy extracted from natural uranium by more than 60 times.
Reprocessing has been politically controversial because of the potential to contribute to nuclear proliferation , the potential vulnerability to nuclear terrorism , the political challenges of repository siting a problem that applies equally to direct disposal of spent fuel , and because of its high cost compared to the once-through fuel cycle.
In the U. Under the energy policy of the United Kingdom through its Nuclear Installations Act, liability is governed for nuclear damage for which a UK nuclear licensee is responsible.